v Internet governance is the ruling of the internet, or developing certain applications, principals or criteria (norms) for equal and better access and use of the internet.
v The process is done by multistakeholder including private sector, government, civil society and academia
v Also internet governance deals with variety of public policy issues related to internet infrastructure, management and use.
v Internet governance covers a broad range of subjects, from technical administration to wide range of public policy.
v Internet functionality relies on computers being able to identify each other which is made possible by the Domain Name System (DNS)
What is the Internet Governance Forum IGF?
The Internet Governance Forum (IGF) was established by World Summit on the Information Society WSIS in 2005; with the first IGF held in Athens in 2006. The IGF has no decision making powers and is intended to serve as a discussion space that gives developing countries the same opportunity as wealthier nations to engage in the debate on Internet governance. Its purpose is to provide a platform where new and ongoing issues of Internet governance can be frankly debated by stakeholders from civil society, the business and technical sectors, governments, and academia.
The first meeting of the IGF
The first IGF meeting held in October 2006 in Athens. The overall theme was ‘Internet Governance for Development’, divided into four main discussion areas:
1- Openness to consider free expression and the free flow of ideas and information on the Internet
2- Security to protect users and networks
3- Cultural and linguistic diversity;
4- Access issues, particularly on improving internet access in the developing world.
GDCO works mainly on building the e-infrastructure, management and connecting people to share, knowledge, experiences and best practices for marginalized, underserved and disadvantage communities. We work on connecting people equally.
It is a data transmission and networking occur between computers connected by a physical infrastructure of optical fibres, cable networks, telephone lines, satellites or wireless links. It is controlled by multi-stakeholders including Internet Service Providers (ISPs).
The Internet uses the Domain Name System (DNS) to allow computers to identify each other. To be connected to the Internet, each computer requires a unique numerical label called an IP address. IP addresses are matched to memorable labels called domain names, stored in a global database. Thus instead of typing the IP address 18.104.22.168 (IPv4) to be connected to the computer that hosts the parliamentary website, the domain name www.gedaref.com where .com represent the generic top level domain (TLD) and .gedaref represent the second level domain.
The existing technical standard used for IP addresses is called IPv4, limits the total number of usable addresses to 3.7 billion. One of the differences between IPv4 and IPv6 is the appearance of the IP addresses. IPv4 uses four 1 byte decimal numbers, separated by a dot (i.e. 192.168.1.1), while IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers that are separated by colons (i.e. fe80::d4a8:6435:d2d8:d9f3b11). It is likely that all available addresses will be exhausted soon. The solution to this is the introduction of a different standard, IPv6, to increase the number of usable IP addresses to 350 trillion but he transition has been slower than expected. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the latest version of the (IP) Internet Protocol IPv6 is the next generation Internet Protocol (IP) address standard intended to supplement and eventually replace IPv4, the protocol most Internet services use today
There are a wide range of organizations involved in the international administration of the Internet including:-
1- The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) which is a US not-for-profit organization that administer the allocation of domain names and IP addresses
2- The Internet Society (ISOC) which is an international membership organization. It play a role in developing internet policies and standards it works through groups such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for developing internet technical standards.
3- The World Wide Web Consortium W3C which is an open to subscribing organizations, which develops technical standards and guidelines for the World Wide Web.
4- The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) which is a UN agency responsible for a wide range of telecommunication matters, including technical standards and development activities. It is working on the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), MDGs and WSIS action lines.
4- World Trade Organization
5- The World Intellectual Property Organization.
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