What is ICANN?

ICANN 1988 (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) is the private (non-government) non-profit corporation with responsibility for IP address space allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management, and root server system management functions, the services previously performed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).

ICANN is the current operator of the IANA functions, is obligated by the NTIA agreement to carry out management of the global IP address and AS Number pools according to policies developed by the communities.

Top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System of the Internet.  it is the last part of the domain name. For example, in the domain name www.example.com, the top-level domain is com

 There are different types of TLDs.

1-  gTLDs, which includes sTLDs and brand TLDs.

2-  ccTLDs

3-  geoTLDs

1-  Generic Top Level Domain (gTLD) is an internet domain name extension with three or more characters. There are currently 21 gTLDs in the root zone of the Internet and they are categorized as:

a-       generic (.com, .info, .net, .org,), which can be used for general purposes;

b-       Sponsored Top level Domain (sTLD) is a special category has sponsor for specific purposes. Top level domain sponsors may belong to a specific ethnic community, professional group, or geographical location.  (.aero, .asia, .cat, .coop, .edu, .gov, .int, .jobs, .mil, .mobi, .tel, .travel,), which can only be used by entities engaged within the specific industry;

c-       generic restricted (.biz, .name, .pro), which can be use only for their specified purposes   

d-       infrastructure (.arpa), which is exclusively used to support operationally-critical infrastructural identifier spaces and it is operated by IANA.[1] Originally assigned to the Advanced Research Projects Agency in the early days on the Internet, .arpa is now exclusively used as an Internet infrastructure

2- Country Code Top-Level Domains (ccTLDs) are two-letter Internet top-level domains (TLDs) specifically designated for a particular country, sovereign state or autonomous territory for use to service their community

3- A Geo TLD is a top level domain name category created by ICANN denoting geographical, geopolitical, ethnic, social or cultural representation. Currently, .asia (represents the Asian continent), .cat (represents the Catalan language) and .eu (represents the countries in the European Union) are considered geo TLDs.  

A Brand TLD is an innovative type of top level domain name (TLD) that is made possible through the implementation of ICANN's new gTLD Program. A Brand TLD provides the opportunity for branded corporations to use their corporate name as their website's top-level identifier instead of using a more traditional .com or .biz domain space. For example, Apple Inc, may use www.iPhone.apple instead of www.iPhone.com. In an interview, former ICANN CEO Rod Beckstrom explained that the .brand domain is just like a logo change and a new marketing strategy for companies.[1]


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